Chronology

1933
January 30 Adolf Hitler appointed Chancellor of Germany
March 22 Dachau concentration camp opens
April 1 Boycott of Jewish shops and businesses
April 7 Laws for Re-establishment of the Civil Service barred Jews from holding civil service, university, and state positions
May 10 Public burnings of books written by Jews, political dissidents, and others not approved by the state
July 14 Law stripping East European Jewish immigrants of German citizenship

1935
September 15 “Nuremberg Laws”:  Anti-Jewish racial laws enacted; Jews no longer considered German citizens; Jews could not marry Aryans; nor could they fly the German flag
November 15 Germany defines a “Jew”:  Anyone with three Jewish grandparents; someone with two Jewish grandparents who identifies as a Jew

1936
March 3 Jewish doctors barred from practicing medicine in German institutions
July Sachsenhausen concentration camp opens

1937
July 15 Buchenwald concentration camp opens

1938
March 13 Anschluss  (incorporation of Austria):  All anti-Semitic decrees immediately applied in Austria
April 26 Mandatory registration of all property held by Jews inside the Reich
August 1 Adolf Eichmann establishes the Office of Jewish Emigration in Vienna to increase the pace of forced emigration
September 30 Munich Conference:  Great Britain and France agree to German occupation of the Sudentenland, previously western Czechoslovakia
October 5 Following request by Swiss authorities, Germans mark all Jewish passports with a large letter “J” to restrict Jews from immigrating to Switzerland
November 9-10 Kristallnacht  (Night of Broken Glass):  Anti-Jewish program in Germany, Austria, and the Sudetenland; 200 synagogues destroyed; 7,500 Jewish shops looted; 30,000 male Jews sent to concentration camps (Dachau, Buchenwald, Sachsenhausen)
November 12 Decree forcing all Jews to transfer retail businesses to Aryan hands
November 15 All Jewish pupils expelled from German schools
December 12 One billion mark fine levied against German Jews for the destruction of property during Kristallnacht

1939
March 15 Germans occupy Czechoslovakia
September 1 Beginning of World War II:  Germany invades Poland
October 28 First Polish ghetto established in Piotrkow
November 23 Jews in German-occupied Poland forced to wear an arm band or yellow star

1940
April 9 Germans occupy Denmark and southern Norway
May 7 Establishment of Lodz Ghetto
May 10 Germany invades the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxemberg, and France
May 20 Concentration camp established at Auschwitz
November 16 Establishment of Warsaw Ghetto

1941
January 21-26 Anti-Jewish riots in Romania, hundreds of Jews murdered
April 6 Germany attacks Yugoslavia and Greece, occupation follows
June 22 Germany invades the Soviet Union
September 28-29 34,000 Jews massacred by Einsatzgruppen at Babi Yar outside Kiev
October Establishment of Auschwitz II (Birkenau)
December 8 Chelmno death camp begins operations

1942
January 20 Wannsee Conference in Berlin:  Plan is developed for “Final Solution”
March 17 Gassing of Jews begins in Belzec
May Gassing of Jews begins Sobibor
June Jewish partisan units established in the forests of Byelorussia and the Baltic states
Summer Deportation of Jews to killing centers from Belgium, Croatia, France, the Netherlands, and Poland; armed resistance by Jews in ghettos of Kletzk, Kremenets, Lachva, Mir, and Tuchin
Winter Deportation of Jews from Germany, Greece and Norway to killing centers; Jewish partisan movement organized in forests near Lublin

1943
March Liquidation of Krakow ghetto
April 19 Warsaw Ghetto revolt begins
Summer Armed resistance by Jews in Bedzin, Bialystok, Czestochowa, Lvov, and Tarnow ghettos
Fall Liquidation of large ghettos in Minsk, Vilna, and Riga
October 14 Uprising in Sobibor
October-November Rescue of the Danish Jewry

1944
March 19 Germany occupies Hungary
May 15 Nazis begin deporting Hungarian Jews
July 24 Russians liberate Majdanek
October 7 Revolt by inmates at Auschwitz; one crematorium blown up
November Last Jews deported from Terezin to Auschwitz

1945
January 17 Evacuation of Auschwitz; beginning of death marches
January 27 Beginning of death march for inmates of Stutthof
April 6-10 Death march of inmates of Buchenwald
April 15 Liberation of Bergen Belsen by British Army
April Liberation of Nordhausen, Ohrdruf, Gunskirchen, Ebensee and Dachau by American Army
May 5 Liberation of Mauthausen and Gusen by American Army