Survivors, their descendants, veterans and others have donated artifacts, documents and other memorabilia since before the Museum opened in 1995, creating a rich repository of memories connected with the Holocaust and WWII years. Some items are part of the Museum’s permanent exhibit; others have been the focus of temporary exhibits, as well as historical research and publications. Professionally inventoried, preserved and accessible, the contents of the HMLC archives are handled with the honor and respect these artifacts, documents and material culture deserve.
Through our monthly Artifact Spotlight, we want to share some rarely seen objects from our archival holdings. For more information about the HMLC Archives, or if you are considering a donation, please contact Diane Everman at 314-442-3722 or email DEverman@JFedSTL.org.
Selections from the HMLC Archives
Battle of the Bulge/Belgium
The Germans launched their last major offensive of WWII on a cold December morning in 1944. Known to most as the Ardennes Offensive or the Battle of the Bulge, the German goal was to split the Allied forces along a 75-mile front in the Ardennes Forest. Although the battle was officially over in late January 1945, the fighting continued in Belgium for weeks after. American forces and troop movement was captured by Signal Corps photographers, including these images.
Pvt. David Hibbitt (Jackson, TN) of the 83rd Division tries to dig out ice from his canteen as he returns from the front. Sgt. Robie Lee Johnson (East Cleveland OH), Co A 38th Regt, 2nd Infantry Division, mans a machine gun in a deep foxhole. And infantrymen of the 2nd Division move through heavy fog and rain into Krinkelt, Belgium.
[Anonymous Photograph Collection]
Nathan Schonfeld Work Card
[Schonfeld Family Papers]
Letzeburg, 10. September 1944: Faithful Luxembourg to her Liberators
On September 10, 1944 tanks of the US 5th Armored Division arrived in Luxembourg City, ending the more than four year German occupation of the city. Tony (Antoine) Krier, a Luxembourg photographer and photojournalist, along with his father-in-law Pierre Hentges, produced this booklet in 1945 celebrating the liberation of the country. The text is in Luxembourgish, French and English. While the city of Luxembourg remained in Allied hands for the rest of the war, the German counteroffensive that led to the Battle of Bulge, meant that much of the country had to be liberated a second time.
[Werner Daniels Papers]
Stars and Stripes
The articles in this September 4, 1944 edition of the Stars and Stripes, like the strike into Belgium, Patton running right off his map, and the actual map of “Germany Next on Gen. Ike’s Hit Parade” all convey the accelerated movement of US troops into Europe after D-Day.
The paper, which began in 1861 by Illinois Regiments camped in Missouri, ceased after the US Civil War, only to be revived in WWI and then again by President Roosevelt in WWII. Reporters, both former journalists now in uniform and those who had never before written for the press, produced different editions in several theaters of operation. The European edition of the Stars and Stripes has been in continuous publication since 1942.
[Herman Dell Collection]
Paris Libere (Free Paris) Postcards
CAP (Compagnie des Arts Photomecaniques) produced this packet of “real-photo” postcards to commemorate the liberation of Paris. Although the liberation of Paris was not considered a military objective, Free French General Charles de Gaulle persuaded Eisenhower that it was a symbolic and political one. The combined revolt by Parisians and the Free Forces of the Interior (FFI), along with the push into Paris by the French 2nd Armored Division with the US 4th Infantry Division, led German Gen. Dietrich von Choltitz to sign the formal surrender on August 25, 1944. After four years, two months and 10 days Paris was once again free. [General Collection]
Feldgebetbuch fur Rosch ha-Schana und Yom Kippur
Around 80% of the approximately 100,000 German Jews who fought for the imperial army in WWI served on the front lines, and about 12,000 of them died in battle. As in the American military in the Great War, the German army distributed field prayer books to Jewish soldiers in 1915. This Mahzor/Machzor (“High Holiday”) prayer book illustrates one of the ways the military supported soldiers regardless of religious background at that time. While at first the German nation honored their former soldiers for their heroism and sacrifice, by the 1930s they found it to be a hollow gesture. H. Itzkowski (and Sons), the printer of the publication, had been in business since 1874 and was known as a well-established Jewish printing shop in Berlin.
Resettlement to Poland Letter/Document, Vienna October 29, 1939
Mathilde (Tilde) Karner, an Austrian Catholic, served as a nurse in WWI. After the war, she met Dr. Fritz Pulgram while working at a hospital in Vienna. They married in 1929. By 1939, things had gotten worse in Austria, so the Pulgram’s began to look for a way out of the country. While waiting to permission to join Dr. Pulgram’s brother in the United States, the couple received this document telling them they would be “resettled” in Poland as of October 31 and needed to be at the “transport” by 8 pm on October 30. Page two of the document details what things they could take with them—as long as it fit inside a parcel weighing 50 kg. Luckily for them, the day before they were to be transported to Poland they received their permission to come to the U.S.
Mein Kampf Wedding Edition, 1943
Wedding editions of Mein Kampf (Hochzeitsausgabe) were given as gifts to newlyweds on the occasion of their marriage from the State. Usually imprinted with the City State’s symbol on the cover, the tipped in page between the front end paper and the title page recorded the names of the newly married couple and was “signed” by the Burgermeister or mayor. These editions typically had brown covers and blue leather spines. Such a gift ensured further indoctrination of Nazi ideals within an “ethnic German” family/union.
The newlyweds in this case were Cromm & Weisheit from the community of Goldlauter.
Walter Berger (Berger/Burns Collection)
In January 1939, Walter Berger was released from Buchenwald Concentration Camp where he had been held since July 15, 1938. Like many others, Walter Berger and his family then fled a few months later from Germany to Shanghai, one of the only ports which would receive Jewish refugees at that time. After the war, Walter and his daughter, Gittel, came to the United States and eventually settled in St. Louis.
This photograph shows Jewish families – men, women, and children – temporarily living in a courtyard while fleeing Kielce, Poland, after the murder of 42 Holocaust survivors by their neighbors during a pogrom in July 1946.
Families Fleeing Kielce, Poland (General Collection)
This photograph shows Jewish families – men, women, and children – temporarily living in a courtyard while fleeing Kielce, Poland, after the murder of 42 Holocaust survivors by their neighbors during a pogrom in July 1946.
German Winter Relief Fund Miniature Books
These miniature books were premiums given to those who donated annually to the Winter Relief Fund for the German People conducted by the National Socialist People’s Welfare Organization. Every year, October through March, different groups, like the Hitler Youth and the German Girl’s Association, collected money for this charity. Each group had its own type of premium, which was available for only two or three days during the campaign. The idea was to donate often in order to collect all the premiums. Of course, the more you gave the better the gift. Donors received a placard to place in their windows to keep additional “can rattlers” away. Failure to donate could lead to harassment, job loss, or even physical attack. These miniature books not only could be read but also could be used as Christmas tree ornaments.
Antwerp Photos (Gladys Goldman Collection)
The German army invaded Belgium in May 1940 as part of the wider offensive that included France, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg. At the time there were between 65,000-70,000 Jews living in Belgium, most having come from Eastern or Central Europe fleeing the Nazis and living in Antwerp or Brussels. In April 1941, stirred by anti-Jewish speeches and the screening of the propaganda film “The Eternal Jew,” Belgium citizens attacked Jewish businesses, burned two synagogues, and burned books.
While these photographs are labeled Passover 1944 they show many of the same actions: ordering the destruction of a synagogue, burning of religious books and destroying other religious objects. British troops with the assistance of resistance fighters liberated Antwerp in September 1944.
Polish Refugees Photographs (Gunin Collection)
The Nazi army invaded Poland on September 1, 1939, as part of Hitler’s lebensraum (“living space”) policy for the German people. While part of the professed reason included reuniting the many ethnic Germans who lived in the disputed border lands of western and northern Poland, the reason was also military. The Soviets occupied eastern Poland as part of the German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact of August 1939.
These Polish refugee images were part of a photograph album labeled “Judah/Juden” found by a Jewish Russian soldier in a German street. While these images portray life in the 1930s for Polish Jews, the finder of the album could relate all too well to the harassment and fleeing experienced by Jews under Nazi control. His own wife, 4-5 year old daughter, and 10 year old niece had themselves escaped Minsk on foot in 1941. The rest of his extended family was captured, put into a ghetto, and then killed in camps during the war. The survivors, including the Russian soldier, returned to Minsk after the war, only to find continued hard times. The family moved to the US in 1979.
US 10th Mountain Division “Ike” Jacket
Originally called the 10th Light Division (Alpine) when formed in 1943, the redesignated 10th Mountain Division was an elite winter-warfare force that fought its way through Italy in pursuit of the Germany. These servicemen were trained in skiing, snowshoeing, rock climbing, and cold-weather survival specifically to fight in the mountainous terrain in Europe. In February 1945, the 10th surprised the German forces in the Apennine Mountains of Italy by taking Riva Ridge at night and then Mount Belvedere soon thereafter, pursuing the German army out of Italy and across the Brenner Pass and the Alps.
Look to Germany: The Heart of Europe
Stanley McClatchie, a young American from a wealthy Southern California family, lived in Germany before 1933 and returned for the Berlin Olympics of 1936. In this book, McClatchie described and illustrated (with more than 300 photographs) what impressed him so much about the “New Germany” that had recovered from the military defeat and economic depression following World War I. Although written in English, Hitler’s photographer, Heinrich Hoffman, published the book in Germany in 1937. Seen by many as Nazi propaganda, after the war, the Allies considered the book “too dangerous” and sought to destroy all copies.
This delightful wood-covered scrapbook is filled with images done by the owner, “Richard,” of scenes from World War II. Given to him by his mother for Christmas 1940, young Richard filled its pages with scenes of military battles, paratroopers, and dogfights, as well as faces and baseball. In the back there are even images cut from magazines showing the latest in military & civilian aircraft.
Rava Silver Hanging Sabbath Lamp
Although by the 16th century European households stopped using star-shaped hanging lamps to illuminate their homes, Jewish families continued the tradition because such lamps were also part of the ritual of beginning the Sabbath. This ornate 18th century silver hanging Italian Sabbath lamp is ornamented with low relief vines and flowers created through chasing and repousse (hammering from the reverse side), and consists of a 12-pointed star oil pan with matching drip cup and decorative cast tassel drop.
Josef Bergmann WWI Austrian Army Medals
Born in 1879, Josef Bermann began life in Przeworsk (Pshevorsk in Yiddish), in what is today Poland. He graduated from the University of Berlin in 1905 with a medical degree and became a German citizen in 1913. During WWI, he served his new country in a medical unit for an infantry brigade, and it was for that service the Austrian Emperor Franz Josef decorated him with the Merit of the Golden Crown. After his discharge from the Austrian military in 1918, Bergmann continued to practice medicine in Germany where his WWI military service was further noted by the bestowal of the Cross of Honor in 1935. Although he received that honor, the new Nuremberg Laws that same year stripped him of his citizenship. Four years later, the German government revoked his physician’s license. In June 1939, the American Vice Consul in Berlin issued Bergmann, his wife and his daughter visas. They immigrated to the United States and ultimately settled in St. Louis. Josef Bergmann became a naturalized US citizen in 1945 and remained in St. Louis until his death in 1953. [Bergmann Collection]
Toast to the Ghost of Hitler Sheet Music
During WWII popular music included everything from patriotic and military life songs to romantic ballads about servicemen and the women they left behind. For example, right after the fall of Paris people were humming “The Last Time I Saw Paris,” and not long after the attack on Pearl Harbor radios were playing “We Did It Before and We Can Do It Again.” Radios and long playing records were at their height. In 1940 more than 96% of all northeastern American households owned a radio. Another group of songs popular during the war included parodies- songs that made fun of the enemy and lightened spirits at home. Probably the most popular was Spike Jones’ “Der Fuehrer’s Face.” But even songwriters in St. Louis got into the spirit with songs like this one, “A Toast to the Ghost of Hitler,” by local Morrie Schroeter of Holly Hills, released by the Morris Music Co. [General Collection]
Rabbi Ferdinand Isserman’s American Red Cross Dog Tags
Noted St. Louis Rabbi Ferdinand Isserman left his congregation at Temple Israel early in 1943 to serve in the American Red Cross overseas. After training in Washington, D.C., he traveled on a troop ship to North Africa. His desire to serve the frontline American troops led him to both Algeria and Tunisia during his six months of service. The US Army had asked the American Red Cross to be the “sole civilian morale-building agency in all overseas areas” in addition to their traditional roles, so Rabbi Isserman found himself doing a variety of tasks wherever he was. His major role was to minister to the soldiers in the field. Rabbi Isserman witnessed the final phase of the Tunisian Campaign at the front, including the decisive Allied victory and the capture of large numbers of Axis forces. [Richard Isserman Collection]
Jewish Army Circulars
Not long after the attack on Pearl Harbor, the Jewish National Council, headquartered in NYC, began to push for the creation of a “Jewish army,” that would help fight the Germans. The request was not new; there had been Jewish battalions in the British army since 1940, and in 1942 the British formed a Palestinian Regiment, combining several Jewish and Palestinian Arab battalions. Roosevelt and Stalin both rejected the concept of a Jewish fighting unit. The text of the March 1943 Circular suggests that in addition to carrying food to Greece from Canadian ports, Swedish “mercy ships” might also “…be used to save Jews in the Balkans and other occupied countries.” [Ben Cohen Collection]
Dachau Camp Cutlery/Flatware
American soldiers often picked up souvenirs when fighting overseas. A soldier who helped liberate Dachau picked up this fork and spoon at the camp. The utensils, stamped WSM42 and ROSTFREI above the Nazi eagle, show it was part of a German soldier’s field cutlery set. The military provided such flatware along with other items as an individual’s personal equipment. There were many different types of sets issued, including a fork and spoon combination, a three piece set and a more elaborate set that included a bottle/can opener. [General Collection]
Nuremberg “Doctors Trial” Photographs
The Nuremberg “Doctors Trial” began on December 6, 1946. Twenty-three leading German physicians and administrators were on trial before the US military tribunal for “their willing participation in war crimes and crimes against humanity.” The tribunal found 16 of the accused guilty of the counts against them, seven of whom were hanged at Landsberg prison in 1948. The remaining nine served various amounts of prison time. [Hedy Epstein Collection]
Crane Steel Co. Gas Cock
On first glance this gas/steam valve with swastikas appears to represent a chilling reminder of the horrors of the Holocaust. On closer inspection, however, this item illustrates the power some symbols have and how some marks changed their meaning over time.
Crane Steel manufactured this gas/steam valve with stopcock in the US, probably during the 1920s. Founded in Chicago by R.T. Crane in 1855, the company used the swastika as a symbol of good luck on its products for decades, as had many US and Europeans in the early 20th century. Once the Nazis appropriated the symbol, however, and because Crane exported most of its products to Europe, the company discontinued using the swastika on their products. Today, a swastika immediately elicits reactions and associations with WWII and the Holocaust. [General Collection]
Ivory Pendant from Dachau
Late in 1945 Dachau, the site of the infamous first Nazi concentration camp established in Germany, held German POWs under US military guard. By January 1946, it housed 18,000 members of the SS along with thousands of other prisoners. Many of those held then at Dachau carved items to pass the time. One of those prisoners, a high-ranking German officer, carved this ivory pendant of grapes and grape leaves for the US officer who temporarily ran the camp. The Army officer later told a relative that the German made and gave it to him “because he thought it would keep him from being shot.” [Koslow & Cassel Collection]
German Military Campaign Insignia
One of the most common items brought back from WWII by American soldiers was insignia and medals taken off the uniforms of German soldiers. The German government awarded the Demjansk Shield to those who defended Demjansk, south of Leningrad, after the Axis troops there had become encircled and cut off by the Red Army early in 1942. The Crimea Shield was bestowed on German or Romanian soldiers who served in that eight-month Axis campaign to capture the Crimean peninsula from Soviet troops, which finally ended with the capture of Sebastopol in July 1942. The final award in this group is the Kuban Shield. It was conferred to German, Romanian or Slovakian troops who participated in the campaign for the Kuban bridgehead, in the Battle of the Caucasus against the Red Army in 1943. [Eugene Paul Larson Collection]
This simple square white porcelain bowl provides a glimpse into a little-known work program of the German government during WWII. Hutschenreuther, a well-known porcelain manufacturer in northern Bavaria, made the bowl as part of a serving set for a division of the Reichsarbeitsdienst (RAD). The RAD, or State Labor Service, began in 1934 as a program to put the German unemployed to work. It soon evolved into a militaristic workforce indoctrinated by Nazi ideology. Men had a compulsory six-month service in the RAD before their military service, while mandatory service for women began after the war started. This bowl was made for, and used by, one of those RAD divisions. [General Collection]
Remagen Nazi Banner Signed by US Troops
The Allied capture of the intact Remagen Bridge on March 7, 1945, two weeks before the planned offensive to cross the Rhine River, quite possibly shortened the war. Although the Germans initially tried to blow up the bridge, their charges only partially detonated, allowing American forces to cross the bridge.
The Germans spent the next ten days trying to destroy the bridge by attacking with everything, but failed in their attempts thanks to the protection of the largest concentration of anti-aircraft weapons seen in the war. A member of one the automatic anti-aircraft gun batteries charged to defend the bridge brought this banner home with him after the war. It came from the two-story, eight classroom school in Remagen that his unit used as their quarters, and is signed by several of the men in his battery. [Herman Dell Collection]
Kapos were concentration camp inmates, some of whom were Jewish, who had privileged positions and who carried out the directives of the camp commandants and the guards. While German soldiers guarded the perimeter of the camps, kapos often “supervised” camps inside the fences.
Some post-war courts, such as the Israeli state-sponsored Collaborator Trials and the European Jewish Honor Courts, prosecuted a few kapos for their role during the war. Many believe that kapos were complicit in what happened at many of the camps and view them as Nazi collaborators, yet kapos could be punished or even killed for not carrying out the orders of a camp commandant. [General Collection]
Jewish Ghetto Police Stamp
The “Organization for the Maintenance of Public Order,” commonly referred to as the Ghetto Police, usually came into existence with the creation of ghettos in Eastern Europe. Although officially part of the Judenrat (Jewish Council) of each city or town, the Jewish Ghetto Police also took orders from the Germans. Their role within the ghettos was dictated by the demands of the Germans, the Judenrat’s activities and the needs of the Jewish population. This example included both the Polish Ghetto Police Stamp and the box in which it was kept. [General Collection]
DP Camp Tags
Resettling or repatriating the millions of refugees and former inmates of the Nazi German concentration, labor and POW camps was a massive undertaking after WWII. Most found themselves in Displaced Persons (DP) camps until they could be reunited with family or resettled. The last DP camp closed in 1959 – 14 years after the end of the war. These tags, for the Koenigstein family, are dated February 1951. [Jerry Koenig Collection]
WWII Crash/Escape Maps
Both the U.S. and the British produced cloth maps for Allied military personnel during WWII. Some were made of parachute silk, others of balloon cloth or acetate rayon. The goal was to provide maps that were tear resistant, noiseless, waterproof and accurate. [General Collection]
This amazing handmade, fur-lined goatskin jacket was given to a member of the U.S. 89th Infantry, the famed “Rolling W.” After landing in France in March 1945, the 89th quickly advanced into Germany, crossing the Sauer, Moselle and Rhine rivers. On April 4, 1945 the 89th liberated Ohrdruf, a subcamp of Buchenwald. Ohrdruf was the first concentration camp liberated by U.S. troops in Germany. [General Collection]
German School Book
While it looks like the 1930s version of a “Dick & Jane” book, this German school book for early readers had pages inserted to reflect the country’s new political reality. Mandated by the German government, the book now contains images of Hitler and the S.A. marching “with silent solid steps.” [Marianne Collin Goldstein Collection]
School Slate & Satchel
This well-used school slate and satchel date from the mid-1930s and were used by a young German Jewish child in first and second grade. Children used slates to do their daily school work, and the satchel, the book bag of its time, allowed children to carry books, slate, pencils, etc. to and from school. [Marianne Collin Goldstein Collection]
Signal Corps Camera
The U.S. military realized the important role cameras could play during WWII. Photographs, both still and motion picture, played a vital role for the military – and the public – during the war. They assisted with strategic planning, recognizing equipment deficiencies, providing legal evidence of war crimes and serving as a public relations tool. [General Collection]
Shoes have become a poignant symbol of the Holocaust, reminding us of the millions of individuals who once wore them. This tattered shoe, worn by a boy who was murdered in Auschwitz-Birkenau, memorializes the 1.5 million children killed during the Holocaust. [Yaakov (Jackie) Handeli Collection]
Created for soldiers of the SA (Sturmabteilung) or the “Brown Shirts,” daggers of this type were produced throughout Nazi Germany. The dagger’s sleek design embodied power and symbolized the supposed vigor of the SA soldier. The Reich manufactured more than five million blades between 1933 and 1944. “Alles für Deutschland” or “All for Germany” was etched on each blade and the hilt of every dagger bore initials indicating the geographic state of production. The hilt of this dagger bears the letters (He), indicating Hessen as the state of manufacture. [Hans Jacoby Collection]
Nationalsozialstische Frauenschaft Pin
Just as the men and boys had their responsibilities, women and girls also had a role to play in forwarding the goals of the Nazi Party. The purpose of the Nationalsozialstische Frauenschaft, or Women’s League, was to spread ideas about motherhood, marriage, family, domestic affairs, use of German products, self-sufficiency and being companions (not equals) to their husbands. Membership was mandatory for women age 18 to 30. Pins like this showed the rank within the organization and the geographical identity of the wearer. This example dates from 1934-1938. [General Collection]
A souvenir of the 1936 Olympics, this bell is a re-creation of the actual bronze Olympic bell that hung in the bell tower at the western end of the Reichssportfeld. These bells were produced by KPM, the Royal Porcelain Maker, and show a depiction of the Brandenburg Gate and an eagle holding the Olympic rings. The motto “I call the youth of the world,” and “11 Olympic Games” appears between two swastikas. [General Collection]
The Reich rewarded German women with a Mother’s Cross of Honor annually on the second Sunday in May (Mother’s Day). Mothers were awarded the cross if they were ethnic Germans and “deemed worthy” by producing at least four children for the Reich. Crosses came in three levels depending on the number of children a mother bore: gold for eight or more, silver for six or seven and bronze for four or five children. The awards came in two sizes, a large one with a neck ribbon for grand occasions and a miniature that could be worn every day. Women wearing such emblems received preferential treatment and public services, everything from having front row seats at an event and moving to the front of lines to the best choices of products and foodstuffs. [Rufus Denton Collection; Unnerstall Collection]